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GUIDE TO READ ILKHAN COINS

Inscriptions on Coins

Scripts on Ilkhanid coins

In legends of Ilkhanid coins, other than Arabic, there are also Mongolian lines written with two different scripts, Uighur and hP’agspa. Although both of these scripts are written vertically from top to bottom and from left to right, just for the sake of harmony with Arabic lines, in the following pages, Mongolian legends also have been placed horizontally, from right to left. I think, the engravers have thought the same way, because the original lines on the coins also are horizontal and from right to left, except Phags-pa. Uighur lines are just rotated forms of the original script, 90° clockwise. The coins already are round objects, so it does not matter too much.

Uyghur Script

Mongolian alphabet for Uyghur script have 23 basic letters (7 vowels and 16 consonants) plus some other letters to stand for foreign words. By order of Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khaan), this writing system for the Mongol tongue was instituted in 1204. Mongols adopted it from Uyghur Turks and Uyghurs from Sogdians. Uyghur Script, also known as Old Script, Mongol Script, Script Mongolian, or Classical Mongolian, is an alphabetic script written vertically from top to bottom with lines progressing from left to right (All other vertical writing systems are written from right to left.). In Uighur Script, the pen should write a continuous line, for the most part, from the beginning to the end of the word. A continuous baseline runs vertically with the majority of lines and loops sticking out to the left as the word progresses downward. This alphabet is reasonably accurate with respect to the representation of consonants, but fails to distinguish several vowels. It has survived numerous attempts at replacement and is still used in Mongolia, as well as Mongol inhabited territories controlled by China and Russia, today. Among Inner Mongolians in China, old Uighur script remains the actual writing system, while Mongolians from other regions primarily use Cyrillic letters but often learn this script as part of their cultural heritage.

Let's take these coins as examples:

compare_tekudar compare_abaqa compare_arghun uyghur
1. Ahmed Tekudar 2. Abaqa 3. Arghun  

Let’s look at the coins #1 and #2. These are the reverse sides. They bear four lines of Uyghur inscription. All lines are the same except the middle one. This line is spared for the ruler’s name. First one is of Ahmed Tekudar and second belongs to Abaqa. The bottom line can be either Uyghur sen "" or the khans name in arabic. On the third example the name Arghun can be seen in arabic on the bottom line. Mongolian scripts written with Uyghur script, line by line, from top to bottom, read:

qaghanu nreber Arghun-un deledkegulug sen

As a whole:

It means "(this coin) has been struck in the name of Argun-un"

On some coins, the ruler’s name has been written with Arabic characters too, in addition to Uyghur. Look at the #3. Here, as the fifth line at the bottom, we read “ “ Argun in addition to "" “Argun-un” in the middle line.

In some gold coins we meet the word "" “arighu” which means “pure”. Sometimes on some coins of Taghay Timur and Sulayman Khan, we see the words "" “sultan adil”, which means “the just sultan”.

"By the Power of Heaven"

Mongols worship the heaven. The heaven is a God for Mongols. Thus, they assimilate both the heaven and God into one and pray to “God and Heaven of mine”. Especially in 18th century Mongols had a strong belief in powers of Heaven, as well as acted in conformity with powers of Heaven and according to decree of Heaven. As for Genghis Khan the Heaven was a God, he conquered countries and states and established his own state wit a power of Heaven. His decree starts with the words “by the eternal power of Heaven…”.

Image 1. Ghazan Mahmud, Baghdad, 700 AH.

It is an interesting fact of Mongolian history that the phrase “under the power of heaven” is inscribed in Persian and Mongol script on coins of some khans of Mongol Empire during 13th-14th century.The phrase “bi kuvvet-i huda” or “by the power of heaven”, inscribed on coins during the reign of Ghazan Khan (694-703 AH /1295-1304 AD) of Ilkhans, is paraphrased as a Mongol phrase.

When we look at the coin below (Ghazan Mahmud’s coins), we can see the "tengri" belief in inscriptions. Let’s put aside the legends at the edges left and right for now. At the third line we read his name with Arabic characters “Ghazan Mahmud”. The different aspect in this legend is at the first and second lines. They read “ tengriyin “ and “ kuchundur “, which means “by the power of God”. The forth line is “ Ghazanu “, Ghazan’s name in Mongolian.

Image 2. Description of a Ghazan Mahmud's coin.

qaghanu nreber Ghazan Mahmud deledkegulug sen

If we take the arabic line out, it reads:

It means, “By the power (strength) of God (Heaven) (This coin) has been struck for Ghazan”.

Here you can find detailed analysis of scripts on several Ilkhan coins. They are selected from the most common types.




Phags-Pa (Phagspa, Pasepa, Basepa) Script

During the reign of Khubilay Khan (1260-1294) the old Uyghur-based script was used throughout the Mongolian empire for some sixty years since Genghis Khan time. The Uyghur script was not much suitable to represent the sounds of neither Mongolian nor the other languages spoken in the empire, like Chinese. Khubilay Khan hoped that a new script would overcome the problems associated with the old script. So, in 1269, Phags-pa script was created by the Tibetan Monk Phagspa Lama, at the Khubilay Khan’s order. In spite of all efforts of Khubilay Khan, the new alphabet could not receive wide acceptance. Mongolian and Chinese officials proved reluctant to learn and use the new script. Phags-pa script was used only to a limited extent during Yuan dynasty. Khubilay Khan’s dream of a single unified national script used throughout his empire by all peoples simply refused to come true. After the collapse of the Yuan dynasty in 1368, the Chinese abandoned the foreign script, whilst the Mongolians competely reverted to the earlier Uighurbased script. Phags-pa script is still used to a limited extent as a decorative script for writing Tibetan.Phags-pa script comprises 41 basic letters. A number of other Phags-pa letters are used for writing Tibetan or for transliterating Sanskrit. This syllabic alphabet is written in vertical columns, from top to bottom, laid out left to right across the writing surface.

phagspa

Image 3. Phags-pa characters on coins of Ghazan Mahmud.

Now look at the picture above. Here in the red circle, you see where the Phags-pa characters have been placed. These characters are puzzling the coin collectors for years. We do not surely know what they are. Are they really Phags-pa characters as mostly accepted among numismatists, or the characters belonging to an other alphabet used by Mongolian people of that time (say Sanskrit), or just a “damga” or royal stamp which we don’t know the meaning of. “ According to Stenley Lane Pool, “although I. J. Schmidt implied these are Tibetian letters”, in fact these are not Tibetian letters, but shortened version of Ghazan Mahmud’s name in Mongol Phagspa script [S. Lane. Poole. “Coins of Mongols in the British Museum”, Classes XVIII-XXIII. London. 1881, page xlix, 289] Furthermore, it should be noted that on photographs of coins, the writings in Mongol script are placed to be in a horizontal position although the mongolian read vertically. In order to read Phagspa script on these coins, Arab letters should be in horizontal position. Thus Phags-pa letters will be located vertically. It is very difficult to read these three letters. R. Otgonbayar, a scientist studying ancient scripts, has tried diligently to read these three letters and, as a result of comparing the photographs of coins, he discovered that there are following letters (the third letter is considered as doubtful). “ This interpretation is very similar to Lane Pool’s that says the letters are acronym of the word M. Ghazan.

phagspa

According to generally approved explanation, they are Phags-pa characters, “Cha”, “Sa” and “Ka” and can be read as “Chasag-a”, which means “in the reign”. Some writers read it as “Cha-kra-ra” to give the meaning of “Shah Jihan”. This is the title of Khubilai Khan and also used by his successors. Another different reading, by trying to find resemblances to Sanskrit letters, is “Cha”, “Kra”, “Warti”, which means “emperor”. Maybe none of these, instead it may stand just for Ghazan’s name. As far as I know, these characters are seen only on Ghazan’s coins.

In the picture below you see different examples of this script:

phagspa



Tamgha Coins of Hulagu

The tamghas are originated from the clan structure and primitive society. Since the time when the ancients, including Mongol nations, have developed into relative groups, origins and ethnic groups, the symbol and belief of a clan have emerged, and the custom to distinguish their origins and relatives have been established. Consequently, when labor distributions within clans began to develop and people started manage an economy, various tamghas, drawings, notes and earmarks have been used as an identification sign for labor instruments and utilities as well as in domestication of animals.

tamgha tamgha

Everytime the clan branched off due to internal clashes, the number of derivative tamghas, which branched off from common tamgha has increased, and thus tamghas been gradually developed into personal, family, lineage, khans and state tamghas.

The Möngke Khagan sent Hulagü Khan to western provinces of Iran, Syria, Merv (Egypt), Rum (Little Asia) and Armenia by ordering him to govern the suburbs of the State. According to this decree Hulagü Khan went for the war to the west in 1253-1254 and established the Ilkhanids, which covered the vast territories of Persia, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkistan and Georgia. During the reign for nine years Hulagü Khan issued coins immortalising his own and Möngke Khagan’s fame. The coins have inscription of “seree” tamgha, which dominate amongst Tului’s descendents.

ILKHAN KHANS

How to Identify Khan Names on Coins

ilkhanid_khans

Since Ilkhans are descendents of Mongols, Mongolian with Uyghur and Phags-Pa script can be seen on most of the Ilkhan coins. It reflects loyalty to their ancestors. However, the dynasty is established in the Middle East where the Arabic is the daily language. The use of Arabic is a need to communicate with the society.

Arabic is written horizontally from right to left and both Uyghur and Phags-Pa scripts written vertically from top to bottom. Excluding the Mongolian sources, coins are displayed in a way that Mongolian scripts rotated by 90 degree clockwise (i.e. Mongol script placed horizontally from right to left).

Starting from Genghis Khan, Mongolian Empire used the Uyghur script which in fact is not suitable for the sound of neither Mongolian nor the other common language Chinese. To solve the problem, upon the order of Khubilai Khan, Phags-Pa script is developed by a Tibetian Monk Phags-Pa Lama. However, Phags-Pa script was not widely accepted and used only to a limited extent in the Yuan-Dynasty. Phags-Pa is still used to a limited extent as a decorative script for writing Tibetian.

You can see the ruler names in Uyghur and/or Arabic.

Ruler Name Period (AH / AD) Name in Uyghur Name in Arabic
Hulagu 654 - 663
(1256 - 1265)
- hulagu
hulagu
Abaqa
(Abaqa-yin)
681 - 883
(1282 - 1284)
abaqa
abaqa
abaqa
abaqa
Ahmed Tekudar
(Amad-un)
663 - 680
(1265 - 1282)
ahmed_tekudar
ahmed_tekudar
ahmed_tekudar
ahmed_tekudar
Arghun
(Argun-un / Argun-u)
683 - 690
(1284 - 1291)
arghun
arghun
arghun
arghun
arghun
Gaykhatu
(Irinjin Turchi(-yin))
690 - 694
(1291 - 1295)
gaykhatu
gaykhatu
gaykhatu
gaykhatu
Baydu
(Baydu-yin)
694
(1295)
baydu
baydu
baydu
baydu
Ghazan Mahmud
(Ghasan-u)
694 - 703
(1295 - 1304)
ghazan_mahmud
ghazan_mahmud
ghazan_mahmud
ghazan_mahmud
ghazan_mahmud
Uljaytu
Hudabende Muhammed
703 - 716
(1304 - 1316)
uljaytu
uljaytu
uljaytu
uljaytu
uljaytu
Abu Sa'id 716 - 736
(1316 - 1335)
abu_said
abu_said
abu_said
abu_said
Arpa Khan 736
(1335 - 1336)
-
arpa_khan
arpa_khan
Musa Khan 736 - 737
(1336 - 1337)
-


musa_khan
musa_khan
musa_khan
Muhammed 736 - 738
(1337 - 1338)
-


muhammed
muhammed
Sati Beg 738
(1338 - 1339)
-


sati_beg
sati_beg
Taghay Timur
(Taghai Timur)
737 - 754
(1336 - 1353)
taghay_timur
taghay_timur
taghay_timur
taghay_timur
taghay_timur
Suleyman 739 - 746
(1339 - 1346)
suleyman
suleyman
suleyman
suleyman
Anushirwan
(Nushirwan)
745 - 757
(1344 - 1315)
anushirwan
anushirwan
anushirwan
anushirwan
Ghazan II. 757 - 758
(1356 - 1357)
-


ghazan_II
ghazan_II

DENOMINATIONS

In the following table, you can find the standard weights of coins in grams.


Value
Period Specifics 1/2 Dirham 1 Dirham 2 Dirham 6 Dirham
Hulagu Mardin 1.35 2.70 5.40
Qafqasya 2.60- 2.86
Abaqa 1.30 2.60 5.20
Ahmad Tekudar Arabic Coins 1.25 2.50 5.00
Others 2.60
Arghun 1.25 2.50
Gaykhatu 1.25 2.50
Baydu 2.50
Ghazan Mahmud 1.08 2.16 4.32 12.96
Uljaytu till 712 1.08 2.16 4.32 12.96
after 713 1.98 3.96 11.88
Abu Sa'€™id 716-719 0.89 1.98 3.96 11.88
719-728 1.80 3.60 10.80
729-734 1.62 3.24 9.72
734-736 1.44 2.88 8.64
Arpa Khan 2.88
Musa Khan 2.88
Muhammed 736-738 2.88
after 738 1.26 2.52 7.56
Nishabur 1.08 2.16 6.48
Nishabur 739-740 1.08 2.16 6.48
Nishabur 741 5.40
Nishabur 742 4.32
Sati Beg 1.08 2.16 6.48
Taghay Timur after 741 1.08 2.16 6.48
0.72 1.44 4.32
Jihan Timur 0.90 1.80 5.40
Suleyman 739-740 0.90 2.16 6.48
740-741 1.80 5.40
after 741 0.72 1.44 4.32
Anushirvan 745-750 0.72 1.44 4.32
750-752 1.26 3.78
753-756 1.08 3.24
Ghazan II Iran and Qafqasya 1.08
Jibal 2.10

DESIGN TYPES

The design types drawn here are based on work of “Ilkhans” by Omer Diler and “Checklist of Islamic Coins, 3rd Ed.” by Stephen Album.

Obverses (images on the left) are the side of Kalima Tauheed.

Uljaytu

Type A
(hexagon / square)
Type B
(circle / tetrafoil)
Type C
(hexafoil / heptafoil)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu

Abu Sa'id

Type A
(square / heptafoil)
Type B
(pointed octafoil / pointed hexafoil)
Type C
(mihrab / rounded square)
abu_said abu_said abu_said
Type D
(pentagon)
Type E
(triangle)
Type F
(square / circle)
abu_said abu_said abu_said
Type G
(looped octagon)
Type H
(Kufic)
 
abu_said abu_said  

Arpa Khan

Type A
(Sultan name in Arabic)
Type B
(Sultan name in Uighur)
Type C
(Local Style)
arpa arpa arpa

Musa Khan

Type A
(Kufic)
Type B
(circle / circle)
Type C
(Local Style)
musa musa musa

Muhammed

Type A
(square / heptafoil)
Type B
(pointed octafoil / pointed hexafoil)
Type FA
(mihrab / rounded square)
muhammed muhammed muhammed
Type FB
(pentagon)
Type JA
(triangle)
 
uljaytu uljaytu  

Sati Beg

Type A
(circle with pointed quatrefoil / plain hexafoil)
Type IA
(type A but plain quatrefoil)
Type HA
(looped hexagon / pointed hexafoil)
satibeg satibeg satibeg

Taghay Timur

Type A
(hexagon, looped at corners / plain heptagon)
Type HA
(as type A but pointed hexafoil in obverse)
Type IA
(exactly Sati Beg type IA)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type IB
(plain circle / pointed hexafoil)
Type IC
(plain or concave square / circle, notched at three points)
Type RA
(as type A but the reverse is in a hexagon)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type RyA
(Kufic / circle inscribed within a pointed hexafoil)
Type UA
(fancy lobated square / pointed quatrefoil)
Type UB
(plain lobated square / plain quatrefoil)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type KA
(fancy octafoil, ruler name in arabic / looped hexafoil)
Type KB
(octafoil, ruler name in uighur/ looped hexafoil)
Type KC
(plain circle / looped hexafoil)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type KD
(simple octafoil / double entwined trefoil)
Type KE
(nner circle with Quran 3:25 on the margin / plain quatrefoil)
Type KF
(plain circle / looped quatrefoil)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type KG
(plain circle / hexagram, mint on both sides)
Type KH
(plain octafoil or dodecafoil circle interrupted with 4 annulets)
Type KI
(lobated square / hexafoil with alternate arcs pointed)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type KJ
(inner circle / plain square)
Type KK
(plain circle / vertically elongated octafoil)
Type KL
(Kufic / lobated square)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type KM
(plain octafoil / looped octagon)
Type KN
(plain square / hexafoil)
Type AA
(plain inner circle / hexafoil)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type AB
(16-foil / hexafoil inscribed within a circle)
Type RnA
(quatrefoil, pointed alternating / highlighted pointed hexafoil)
Type RnB
(octafoil / looped hexafoil)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu

Jihan Timur

Type A
(ornatequatrefoil / ornate pentafoil)
Type SA
(looped hexagon / hexagon)
Type IA
(dodekafoil / hexafoil)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu

Suleyman

Type A
(inner circle /looped ornamented hexagon)
Type B
(ornamented square / inner circle)
Type C
(octafoil / inner octafoil)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type D
(plain circle / eye-shape)
Type E
(inner circle / quatrefoil)
Type F
(square / inner circle)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type G
(mihrab /pointed hexafoil -divided clouds)
Type HA
(octafoil / octafoil)
Type MA
(Sati Beg's IA)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type KA
(Octafoil / Hexafoil)
Type KB
(square / quatrefoil)
Type KC
(octafoil / octafoil, similar to type C)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type KD
(plain circle / square)
Type FA
(square / octafoil)
Type IA
(mihrab / inner circle)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type IB
(inner circle / square)
Type SA
(Taghay Timur's type RA)
Type JzA
(inner circle / square, similar to type IB)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type JA
(pointed pentafoil / quatrefoil)
Type JB
(plain circle / quatrefoil)
Type KhA
(plain circle / pentegram, sultan name in Uighur)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu

Anushirwan

Type A
(mihrab / pointed hexafoil,with margin divided into 6 clouds)
Type B
(kalima arranged in a triangle / plain circle with name in uighur)
Type C
(diamond / looped octafoil on four alternating corners)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type D
(mihrab / plain circle)
Type E
(square / eyeshape)
Type F
(plain circle / looped hexafoil)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type G
(kufic kalima / partially looped hexafoil -or fancy triangle-)
Type H
(circle inscribe within a quatrefoil / looped hexagon)
Type I
(ornamented rectangular lozenge / nonafoil)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu
Type J
(plain square / concave dodekagon)
Type UA
(square / inner circle)
Type RA
(circle looped top&bottom / trefoil)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu

Ghazan II.

Type A
(plain circle / pointed pentafoil)
Type JA
(plain hexafoil / pointed pentafoil)
Type JB
(plain circle / trefoil)
uljaytu uljaytu uljaytu

ILKHAN MINTS

Ilkhan mints as they appear on coins and their locations.


Mint Name  in Arabic Observed Forms Images
Abarquh
Abarquh + Ta'us  
Akhlat
Akhlat + Jawaz
Arran  
Aksaray / Aksara
Akşehir(Akshahr)
Alagiz
Alamut
Amasya
Amid
Amul
Antaliya
Antaliya + Alaiya
Ankuriya / Ankiriya / Enguriye / Engur
Ani
Ayasuluk (Ayasuluq)
Aymid  
Abaran
Abkhaz    
Abriz    
Abu Ishak (Abu Ishaq)
Abu Ishak (Abu Ishaq) + Kazirun  
Abu Saidiya
Abiward
Ajnan    
Akhalsikh
Arbik  
Erbil (Irbil)
Erbil (Irbil) al-Mamura    
Erbil (Irbil) + Wazana    
Erciş (Arjish)
Erciş (Arjish) + Khilat  
Ardabil

Erzurum / Arzarum /
Arzan al-Rum
Arzan / Erzen  
Erzincan (Arzinjan)
Armanak
Urmi
Arwand  
Astara / Astar    
Astarabad
Ustundar  
Istanus  
Isfarayin
Isfahan

Izmir  
Ekridir / Ekri  
Alishtar  
Alsu    
Alinjaq - Alinja
Almur  
Alinja + Tabriz    
Awah    
Urdu  
Urdubad
Urdubazar    
al-Bazar al-Urdu / Bazar Urdu  
Babak  
Bazar Lashkar  
Bazar Toman  
Ushni    
Avnik (Awnik) / Abnik
Irawan
Ilak  
Bab / al-Bab    
Bargiri / Pergiri  
Bazar
al-Bazar al-Urdu
Bazar al-Mamura    
Bazar Bulagh    
Bazar Khurasan    
Bazar Lashkariya
Baku / Bakuya
Balis  
Bana  
Baward    
Baybirt
Bidlis / Bitlis
Barda'
Barla
Birgiri
Darul Feth Birgi
Burghulu
Bergama (Barghama)
Barwa    
Burujird    
Bistam    
Basra / al-Basra
Baghdad
Bekbazar/ Beypazar / Beypazari
Bekshahr
Belakhur
Baljan  
Balad  
Bilasuwar  
Bur
Burdur
Burlu / Borlu
Bahrazan
Baylaqan
Pasawa  
Pul-i Aras
Pul-i Aras + Nahçıvan (Nakhjavan)
Tabriz
Turshiz
Tustar
Tiflis
Tirebolu  
Tawra
Tokat (Tuqat)
Tun + Jajerm
Tire / Tira
Jajerm
Jar
Jam  
Jurjan  
Jarun
Jazira / al-Jazira
al-Jazirat al-'Urmiya  
Juwabad    
Jawaz + Akhlat  
Chamishgazak (Çemişkezek)  
Hani  
Harran
Hisn
Hasan Keyf
/ Hisn Kayfa
Hilla / al-Hilla
Hamah  
Horto / Hortu  
Khabushan
Khadar / Khalar
Khurasan    
Khartabirt / Khirbirt
Kharput / Kharbut / Harput  
Khurram Abad    
Khazana al-Ma'mura  
Khazina / Khazana  
Khilat
Khanus
Khurti / Khurtu  
Khuy
Dadya  
Damghan
Dahistan / Daghistan
Dizmar

Duluja (Dalujeh)

 
Dımışk (Dimashq)
Develu (Dewelu)  
Develu (Dewelu) Karahisar (Qarahisar)  
Dulayjan  
Divrighi / Divrigi / Diwriki
Rasht    
Rasad  
Ruyan
Rayy
Zanjan    
Zawzan    
Ziyarat    
Zaydan
Sari / Sariyya    
Samsun
Samsun + Siwas    
Samsun + Gumushpazar    
Sawah
Sawah + Kashan    
Sabzawar
Sipihr  
Saraw    
Surra' Mansuriyya  
Siird / Sighird / Isghird
Sulduz  
Sultan Hisar  
Sultaniya
Salmas
Suleymanshehir (Sulaymanshahr)
Samasur
Simnan
Sinjar
Sinjan  
Sirajan  
Sinop (Sinub)
Sivas (Siwas)
Sivrihisar (Siwrihisar)  
Shabiran    
Shasiman / Shasifan
Shabankara
Shabistar    
Sharur
Shimakhi    
Shustar
Shahr
Shahrzur    
Shahristan
Shahristan Rashidi
Shayk Kabir
Shayk Kabir Shiraz    
Shiraz
Shirwan  
Shiz  
Sandikli / Sanduklu  
Tabrud
Tarum    
Ta'us
Tus
Tusan    
Askar  
Aqar    
Alaiye
Farab  
Firim  
Falakabad
Firuzan
Qa'in / Qayin
Qara Aghach I.
Qara Aghach II.  
Qarabagh
Qarjin
Qarahisar
Qarahisar-i Devle  
Qirshahr
Qazwin
Qastamuniya
Qastamuniya + Makyus    
Qolhisari / Golhisari / Golhisar
Qumm  
Quchisar
Qonya (Konya, Quniya)
Qir    
Qays    
Kayseriye (Qaysariya)
Karni  
Kazirun
Kashan
Ka'in / Qayin  
Kabudjama  
Kirman
Kirind    
Kushtaspi / Kushtasbi    
Kalat  
Kankari / Kankar (Cankiri)
Kemah  
Kutahya
Kuhgilu / Kuhgiluya  
Kighi
Kiliwan  
Garni / Qarni
Golbazar / Gulbazar  
Golhisari    
Gulistawan
Gulsivas  
Gulshahr  
Sulshahr  
Gumushbazar
Maden + Gumushbazar  
Ganja
Ladiq  
Laranda  
Lahijan
Lurwand  
Lashkar    
Lur Buzurk
Lurdijan    
Lur Kuchik
Lulua / Lulue
Lilan / Laylan  
Mardin
Mazkird
Mubarakiya  
Mahallat    
Muhammadiya  
Mada'in
Madina  
Maragha
Mara'sh  
Marw
M-shahr    
Ma'din  
Ma'din Shahr
al-Ma'mur bazar  
Makyus  
Maden Makyus  
Malatya  
Manadhir / Manadir
Mansuriya    
Manawgat
Mush
Mawsil / al-Mawsil
Mut
Mulshawan  
Mayab    
Mayyafariqin
Nakhjawan
Nidir / Nadir  
Nikhtar / Niksar
Nakide / Nighde / Nigde
Nawbinjan  
Nawshahr (Nevsehir)
Nihawand    
Nayriz
Nisa    
Nishabur
Wazana    
Wazana + Irbil  
Wasit
Wastan
Wan  
Waramin    
Warawi
Walashkird / Walashjird
Wilawar / Wilamar  
Hattakh / al-Hattakh    
Harat  
Hurmuz  
Hamadan
Yazd
Yangi Bazar    
Aqshehir  
Aydhaj  
Maden Golbazar  
Oltu  

 

 

 

 

 

 

MINT MAP

Approximate locations of Ilkhan mints.

YEARS AND MONTHS

How to read year and months on coins

The zero point of ilkhani calendar is Rajab 01, 701 AH (according to another reference Rajab 13, 701 AH). This date is in the reign of Ghazan Mahmud. But, however it is, we see ilkhani dates only on some Abu Said coins as 33 and 34 ilkhani. The year ilkhani 33 corresponds to 734/735 and 34 to 735/736 AH. In contrast to the modern coins, Ilkhans do not use numerals to write dates, but formulate it by words. That is why the study of islamic coins, particularly Ilkhan coins, are harder for nonarabic speakers. The date, along with the mint is generally located on the margins.

Dates can be formulated as "ones digit + and + tens digit + and + hundreds digit". So if the date is 682, the date is written as "two and eighty and six hundred" which corresponds to "ithnayn wa thamaanya wa sitta mia". Here are more examples.

Date Ones Digit linker Tens Digit linker Hundreds Digit
657 sab'a
wa
khamseen
wa
sit mia
699 tis'a
wa
tis'een
wa
sit mia
716 sitta
wa
ashra
wa
sab'a mia

There are coins with month names or letters as shortened versions of months.

In Arabic Month Name In Arabic Month Name

Muharrem Rajab
Safar Sha'ban
Rabi' al-ula Ramadan
Rabi' al-akhir Shawwal
Jumada al-ula Dhu al-Qa'adah
Jumada al-akhira Dhu al-hijjah

CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS PROJECT

  • yigit_altay Yiğit Altay
    Collector, PhD in Chemistry
  • christian_rasmussen Christian Rasmussen
    Collector
  • orhan_sarioglu Orhan Sarıoğlu
    Collector
  • nyamaa_badarch Nyamaa Badarch
    Collector, Numismatist
  • kamil_eronKamil Eron
    Collector
  • steve_album Steve Album
    Numismatist, Expert on Oriental Coins
  • umit_ekenek Ümit Ekenek
    Collector
  • berhan_tasdelen Berhan Taşdelen
    Collector

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Album, Stephen. Checklist of Islamic Coins, 3rd Edition, 2011.
  2. Aykut, T. and Aydin, S. (ed.) Ak Akçe: Mongol and Ilkhanid Coins, Istanbul 1992.
  3. Diler, Ömer. Ilkhans: Coinage of the Persian Mongols, Istanbul 2006.
  4. Nyamaa, Badarch. The Coins of Mongol Empire and Klan Tamgha of Khans (XIII - XIV), Ulaanbaatar 2005.
  5. Eti, Mehmet et al.. Anatolian Coins, (unfortunately, no longer available)

FURTHER READING

  1. Aka, İsmail; Ersan, Mehmet; Khelejani, Ahmad Hesamipour (trans.). Camiu`t-Tevarih (İlhanlılar Kısmı), Reşîdüddin Fazlullah, Ankara, 2013.
  2. Ender, Celil. Abaka Han'ın Darp Ayları Yazılı Gümüş Sikkeleri M. 1265-1282 (H. 663-680), Türk Nümizmatik Derneği, 1989.
  3. Jackson, Peter. The Mongols and the Islamic World: from Conquest to Conversion, Yale University Press, 2017.
  4. Köprülü, Cemal (trans.).İran Moğolları (Siyaset, İdare ve Kültür İlhanlılar Devri, 1220-1350), Ankara 2011.
  5. Spuler, Bertold. Die Mongolen in Iran: Politik, Verwaltung und Kultur der Ilchanzeit 1220-1350, Lipsia, 1939.
  6. Temir, Ahmet (Trans.). Moğolların Gizli Tarihi (I Tercüme), Ankara, 2016.
  7. Yalçın, Filiz Ayşe; Deniz, Arda. Moğolların Anadolu Politikası ve İlhanlılar Zamanında Anadolu, Ekim Yayınları, 2014.
  8. Yuvalı, Kadir. İlhanlı Tarihi, Istanbul, 2017.

VISITOR MAP